Further reading and commentary

Unfortunately, William Swartley did not publish much about "Primal Integration". Swartley (1975) is the clearest written statement about the work as far as he developed it.
Lake (1980) gives the fullest statement of Frank Lake's views on pre- and peri-natal stress, 'umbilical affect' and the 'Maternal Foetal Distress Syndrome'. Difficult to read for some as much of it is in chart form - a favourite mode for Lake, deriving from his pre-psychiatric career as a parasitologist in India (Life cycle of the Liver Fluke etc.) - but worth the effort. Some of this material will become available in a more digestible form in Roger Moss's forthcoming book on Frank's work: In the Beginning. Lake (1981, 1986) contain less detailed (and less graphic) statements of his views and can be used as an introduction.
Mott (1948) is: 'an analysis of the configurational involvement of birth and its relation to emergence generally' and perhaps the best introduction to weird and wonderful world of Francis Mott.
Stanislav Grof's original statement of his cartography of 'inner space' and the "Basic Perinatal Matrices" is presented in Grof (1975).
Donald Lee Williams's psychological commentary on Carlos Castaneda's 'Path of Knowledge' (Williams 1981), gives as true a 'feel' for the sort of journey involved in Primal Integration as anything else in writing we've come across.


Baker, E. (1967) Man in the Trap. New York: Macmillan.

Balint, M. (1968) The Basic Fault. London: Tavistock Publications.

Boadella, D. (1985) Wilhelm Reich: The Evolution of his Work. (2nd edn) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Crisp, T. (1987) Mind and Movement: the Practice of COEX. Saffron Walden: C.W. Daniel.

de Mause, L. (1982) Foundations of Psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots Inc.

Fodor, N. (1949) The Search for the Beloved. New York: University Books.

Fodor, N. (1951) New Approaches to Dream Interpretation. New York: University Books.

Grof, S. (1975) Realms of the Human Unconscious. New York: Viking Press.

Grof, S. (1988) The Adventure of Self Discovery. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Jacobi, J. (1942) The Psychology of C.G. Jung. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Janov, A. (1970) The Primal Scream. New York: Dell. (London: Abacus 1973).

Janov, A. (1991) The New Primal Scream. London: Abacus.

Kent, C. (1969) The Puzzled Body. London: Vision Press.

Lake, F. (1966) Clinical Theology. London: Darton, Longman & Todd. (Abridged edition 1986.)

Lake, F. (1980) Studies in Constricted Confusion. Nottingham: Clinical Theology Association.

Lake, F. (1981) Tight Corners in Pastoral Counselling. London: Darton, Longman & Todd.

Moss, R. (1983) Frank Lake's Maternal-Fetal Distress Syndrome and Primal Integration Workshops. Oxford: Clinical Theology Association.

Mott, F. J. (1948) The Universal Design of Birth. Philadelphia: David McKay.

Mott, F. J. (1964) The Universal Design of Creation. Edenbridge, Kent: Mark Beech.

Odent, M. (1984) Entering the World. London: Marion Boyars.

Parsons, T. (1953) Illness and the role of the physician. In C. Kluckholn & H. Murray (Eds) Personality in Nature, Society and Culture. New York: Knopf.

Rank, O. (1929) The Trauma of Birth. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Swartley, W. (1975) Primal Integration. Mays Landing, NJ: Centre for the Whole Person. (Reprinted in 1987 in Self & Society, XV (4).)

Williams, D. L. (1981) Border Crossings. Toronto: Inner City Books.

© Juliana Brown & Richard Mowbray 1994